Western Art No.14
Tsukasa KoderaToward a Dynamic Geography or Geohistory of Art
Athenian sculptors enjoyed absolute fame during the Roman era, but this was not always the case in earlier times. By compiling the names of the ancient Attic sculptors recorded in signature inscriptions and in the ancient literature and checking the cities in which they worked, this article demonstrates that their fame in the Greek world was established during the post-Pheidian period. By then the demand for them was so great that some sculptors with non-Athenian names appeared on inscriptions as Athenians, most likely reflecting the assumption of a false ethnicity. During the early and middle Hellenistic age, although Athenians’ signatures survive in relatively few numbers, there still existed considerably many Athenian sculptors, alluding to an increase in demand from outside of the Greek world (in the Classical sense). During the late Hellenistic age, their main commissions came from Romans. Significantly, the Athenians signed with their ethnic names, even when their works were copies of non-Athenian sculptors. For the Romans, then, the Athenian ethnicity of their sculptors guaranteed that they were the rightful successors of the traditions not only of the Athenians but of the whole Greek world.
Built by the French king Louis IX between 1239 and 1248 to house Passion relics, including the famous Crown of Thorns, the Sainte-Chapelle and its artistic decoration was deliberately designed to visualize Capetian politico-religious ideology, which viewed the French kingdom as a “New Holy Land” and Paris as a “New Jerusalem.” This article demonstrates this relationship between design and ideology by first analyzing its architectural symbolism, establishing based on the recent studies a typological relationship with Old Testament archetypal sanctuaries such as the Temple of Solomon on the one hand, and analogies with platine chapelles of Charlesmagne and of the Byzantine court at Constantinople on the other. Second, it situates the conception of the Sainte-Chapelle as an enormous reliquary turned outside-in and the “Grande Chasse,”container of the Passion relics, within the context of the development of relic exhibition, especially after the Fourth Crusade of 1204. Third, it studies the representation of the translation of Passion relics depicted in Window A, of which Alice A. Jordan has recently proposed a reconstruction of the original disposition of panels. Not only did Jerusalem, Constantinople and Paris provide an imaginative geographical frame for the Sainte-Chapelle, but its narrative strategy was also strongly influenced by a typological structure that compared the relics with the Ark of Covenant.
Many mission churches in the Viceroyalty of New Spain were decorated with mural paintings by indigenous artists soon after the conquest. The well-known mural in the convent church of Ixmiquilpan is an unusual example that shows the figures of pre-Hispanic indigenous fighters represented in a clumsy but unambiguous European artistic style. This essay studies the lineage of imagery surrounding this painting, tracing the process of negotiation between the conquerors and the indigenous elite, who took quick notice of the interest in exoticism of their conquerors. The transplantation of European ‘art’ to the New World colonies consisted not only of the transplantation of the techniques of an alien artistic practice, but also of the indigenous struggle for the appropriation of the power to manipulate visual representation.
Cubism was formed in Paris and rapidly expanded all over Europe and the United States. After Picasso and Braque began to use collage elements and papier colle in their works in 1912, this dissemination of Cubist practice accelerated. From that point forward, each city where its artists accepted Cubism developed its own innovative art practices, while Paris gradually lost its status as the center of the contemporary art world.
It is often said that the center of world art shifted from Paris to New York with Robert Rauschenberg’s capture of the Grand Prix at the 1964 Venice Biennale. But how did postwar American art achieve its presence in the international market? This paper examines how art dealers such as Leo Castelli and Ileana Sonnabend engineered a global market for American art in Paris in the early sixties. Their strategies will be discussed in comparison to those of Informel and Nouveau Realisme, both of which tried in vain to establish Parisian hegemony in the postwar art scene. An analysis of the making of Rauschenberg’s reputation in Paris will show that the American art dealers needed to first “conquer” the former artistic capital in order to reach other European cities. As a result, a large number of American art works entered European collections in the later sixties, and despite Parisians’ harsh reaction to the perceived American maneuver at the 1964 Biennale, Rauschenberg was chosen as the most important living artist by French critics in 1965.
In 1960 the International Conference of AICA (Association International des Critiques d’Art) was held in Poland under the socialist government. Based on research of related archives, the present article characterizes aspects of discourses around 1960 concerning the “international character” of modern art and the historical and cultural significance of this conference.
In Europa zu Hause: Niederlander in Munchen um 1600
Edited by Tsukasa Kodera
Sebastiano del Piombo 1485+1547